BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) OVERVIEW OVER ONLINE AVAILABLE ELSKETCH PROJECTS -- -- THESE HAVE ALL BEEN CAREFULLY STUDIED IN REAL LIFE, NOT JUST AS AN EMULATION ON A COMPUTER, AND FOUND TO WORK AS PROMISED; NOTE THAT SUCH AS AM MW RADIOS IS -- FOR ANY LONG-RANGE USE -- EXTREMELY TIED UP TO ALL SORTS OF WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT IS NIGHTTIME ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ For the G15 Multiversity: Background works Also part of the Stamash Educational CenterS, SECS For general info about G15 Yoga6dorg see also In general terms, we might use the following vocabulary: Each Elsketch project constitutes also a report over successfully completed electronics development and implementation work, in a sense a bit of 'neopopperian research', intended to be replicated in an improvised, intuitive, playful way by anybody who likes to educate herself in this way. This report is dated September 3, 2013. For general info about copyright confer the spirit of honoring acknowledgements as found in our ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Elsketch: Mutual BDSM of two capacitors -- Exploring the complexity of swinging slow How to get a green signal to blink at ca 1 Hz -- with an attitude [note: for ease of composing the materials, frequent mentions in the Elsketch texts are made of things which belong to the future -- future Elsketch activities include making even a whole G15 computer, and parallel activities are also referred to in the same manner, such as the chemical educational activity we have named Atomlite. apart from these references to things not yet done as if they have been done, each elsketch project describes a project actually carried out to success, and well tested, and fully doable in the present by following the instructions.] HERE'S SOME THINKING ABOUT IT FIRST -- SKIP IT IF YOU JUST LIKE TO GET THE LED TO BLINK When we made the Elsketch 1st radio module, and also the Minitx radio transmitter, we put a capacitor in parallel with a coil, right? The idea here is that a capacitor can be charged up really really fast, and we want it to let go of the charge in a pulse that is neither instantaneous nor too slow but matching with that really really fast speed quite well. And so we would like something which is kind of short-circuiting the capacitor (that is, connecting a wire from one pin to the other pin), but still not quite that -- for that would be instantaneous. Instead of just a wire, we have a coil, for a coil can have a bit of slowness in just how fast it allows things to go through it. By tuning the coil to the capacitor, we get the core of many an oscillator. When we go to truly slow frequencies -- not a million pr second, but around one pr second -- we have to look for other solutions. A coil suitable for such a frequency would probably need a diameter of a house, and correspondingly many turns, and a ton of ferrite. Imagine that we could get a capacitor to build up during something like a second, after which it would get a chance of about the same time where it could discharge itself. This is within the range of possibility if we use a capacitor not merely the size of 200 pf, nor merely one thousand times that, namely 200 nf, but more like 50 times that again, namely 10 mf (mf here means microfarad, but in 20th century terminology it is sometimes written by means of a greek letter for m which looks like j and u put together). Is there any such mechanism? Is there any switch, any automatic electronic switch, in among our electronics items? Well, we have the transistor, right? The transistor we have used most so far -- called BC547C and of type, we say, NPN -- happens to be so that it can also act like a switch. If the input to the middle pin, the M-PIN, is not positive, then nothing will be let through the transistor, usually. But make it a little more positive, and with ground connected to the E-PIN, and the C-PIN connected to a power supply modulator and the to the PLUS pole of the power supply, the transistor can be regarded practically as a plain wire. But the transistor is a quick item. It isn't the most obvious that we can get a transistor to discharge a capacitor when it is full, and also let it charge up when it is empty. But let us double the picture: two transistors and two capacitors with some modulators are known to be able to some blinking, some truly low-hertz cycling. One of these transistors serves one of these capacitors, let's call it the "main" capacitor; while the other of these transistor serves the other one, which mimicks the effects of a coil. All in all, when we wire in a green signal led lamp with the first capacitor, we would like this capacitor to be more or less as slowly discharged as it was charged. Another way to look a capacitor is this way: it is a wire that -- as it progresses more and more in being charged -- becomes more and more a modulator then a big modulator then a really really big one. In order to reverse the process we must let some ground through to the plus side of the capacitor, and some plus through to the ground side of the capacitor. Often, when we have something such as microfarad capacitor, we find that these are polarised -- they have a plus side and a ground or what we call "E Pole" side. It's important not to take this altogether too literally in all circumstances. For instance, you can perfectly well connect several types of polarised items in series. When you do this, the rule is to connect the plus of each to the ground of next, and use the outermost two connectors, where you will have one plus and one ground. The idea we need to stick to is that while we don't have to fit the E-POLE side of the capacitor to the E-POLE of the power supply, we should pay attention to the fact that the wire that typically has most plus in it, is going to be connected to the plus of the capacitor. But if there is a series of components, it may be that the wire that has the most plus in it actually is marked 'E-POLE' of that other component. We have to look at the FLOW of the plus pole through possibly several components, and also the FLOW of the complementary pole, the E-POLE, which goes in the other direction. A polarised capacitor should ideally only be used when we are totally sure that there cannot be, even for an instant, a reversal of the flow. In praxis, it is totally acceptable to use a polarised capacitor if it is not entirely that clear-cut, but it is a non-intense usage of the capacitor with a leaning towards the correct polarities. If the use of the capacitor is getting intense and the chance of reversal of flow is bigger, one can use two of the three pins of a transistor -- say, the C-PIN and the M-PIN -- to rectify the current (and remove the reversed flow part of it). If you use e.g. PNP transistor for this purpose -- which is, in 20th century jargon, to use a 'diod', but instead of having a separate component for this purpose, we can simply use the types of items we've already become acqainted with -- then you put the E-POLE to the M-PIN -- taking the hint from the name, PNP (e.g. the BC557C used also in the radio), which has 'n' for 'negative', or E-POLE in the middle. The other pin, such as the C-PIN, will then be the PLUS-POLE. In the following elsketch, we then use two polarised capacitors without apology, for it is a nonintense use that isn't likely to do any damage on these capacitors. We use one green signal -- led -- in series with one transistor. The other transistor doesn't have a led, it is simply there so that each capacitor can work tightly together with one transistor. When you switch on the power supply, you'll find that it takes about a second before the led lights up. Then it will light up and off with a cycle lasting for about a second. (We say, "with an attitude", for it has a slant to it!) If you mess about with it and it doesn't work, try, with power supply 'off', to put a wire between the two pins of one of the capacitors, and then the other, so as to discharge and 'neutralise' both. Then switch it on and it'll work, if it is correctly wired and the items are still intact. Try also using a volt-meter (the analog type, with a moving measurement needle) at various positions to learn about how the volt is going up and down in pleasant slowness at various points. At other points we disrupt the functionality of the elsketch if we try to measure there, because there is too much interference from the voltmeter at these points. At any rate, what you measure won't probably be very obviously clear! And that's FINE. As I hope we say again and again during Elsketch work, the map, the thought, we have of how these items work are just indicating bits and pieces of their vast functionality in reality. For instance, when a capacitor discharges its content, it can get an E-POLE stronger than even the E-POLE of the power supply, for an instance. This is something an analog voltmeter can show. So there's a lot to this little elsketch. To understand the workings of this little super-slow oscillator more closely, let us imagine that when a capacitor is fully uncharged, it is as good as plain wire -- it short-circuits. And let us also imagine that when a transistor has got a tiny but clear-cut bit of PLUS on its M-PIN, it, too, is like a wire -- it short-circuits -- in its two other pins, the C-PIN and E-PIN. (In both cases, we assume that the polarities are correctly aligned.) Also, a led lamp lets through pretty much current although it isn't exactly like a wire, when it gets above a minimum couple of volt and in the right direction. But let's remember that when a capacitor discharges, it in some senses acts like a power supply all on its own, and strong readings may arise on a voltmeter. If you imagine how the components are related in your mind, taking time to digest this construction, this elsketch, you'll see something like this: each capacitor works very roughly every second time. It works -- 'as a wire' only while it is charging -- but as long as it does this it flows into the M-PIN of one of the transistors, allowing this transistor to be in the 'open' state. So the capacitor is a 'wire' and it goes into the M-PIN of a transistor and this too is like a 'wire'. But this means that the C-PIN of that transistor goes pretty much directly to the ground. So the other capacitor is getting grounded, in other words, discharged, by the action of the first capacitor, for the other capacitor is connected exactly to the C-PIN. It's like in BDSM, first I whip you while you are tied up, then we do it in reverse. For as soon as the other capacitor is discharged, the first one is getting enough of it and stops its flow. And the other capacitor will then repeat the exact same action on the first. More or less exact the same action, anyway, since we have a little bit variation here between how the transistors are used. Only one of them has a modulator at its M-PIN, and a led green signal lamp. In any case, I hope that -- given the idea of seeing the open transistor as a 'wire', a directional wire -- we see the importance of having a modulator e.g. between the C-PIN and the PLUS of the power supply. For otherwise, we would simply send the whole power supply PLUS electricity straight to the E-POLE, and that's not what we should do in any case. Practically, it makes often sense to tin in only one wire from the power supply and let the other wire just barely touch the proper wire in the elsketch so that we immediately withdraw it if there is any sign that it isn't correctly wired, or even short-circuiting. If in doubt whether it might be short-circuiting, instead of risking damaging the power supply, use an ohm-meter on the input (after discharging all and any capacitors there -- if it less than some hundred ohms, go over it). MUTU1: MUTUAL BDSM OF TWO CAPACITOR (LED BLINKER) BEFORE YOU BEGIN, MAKE THE STEEL GRID First, you make a steel grid as with the 1st radio module. The steel grid is normally more stable if you put the steel wires alternatively over and under one another as you construct it -- with a sense of 'knitting'. Tie up variously colored plastic-isolated thin steel wires (eg 0.6-0.7mm) of various lengths at suitable positions intuitively decided. COMPONENT LIST -- MUTU1 *** 12V power supply mentally tagged: "power supply" *** one green led indicator that will light up at 2 or 2.1 volt or so and that can handle several more volt; this one is polarised (see component comments underneath) tagged: "led" *** one NPN BC547C 45 volt or more transistor "blink-1 transistor" *** one NPN BC547C 45 volt or more transistor "blink-0 transistor" *** one 10 mf polarised capacitor handling several times 12 volt at least (read, if u like, theory above about why it's ok to use polarised here) "blink-1 input" *** one 10 mf polarised capacitor handling several times 12 volt at least (read, if u like, theory above about why it's ok to use polarised here) "blink-0 input" *** one 50k modulator (eg, twist two 100k in parallel) "blink-1 m-pin" *** one 25k modulator (eg, twist four 100k in parallel) "blink-1 power" *** one 25k modulator (eg, twist four 100k in parallel) "blink-0 power" TINNING INSTRUCTIONS -- MUTU1 BLINKER Standard recommendations: Pls read comments after the tinning instructions BEFORE tinning. Take extra care with getting transistors and mf capacitors right. Switch power on only after looking at the elsketch very very carefully -- and then keep SAFE distance! This is your own responsibility. Don't do it if you're uncertain about the effects of doing this! Use much light & magnifiers. Regard names of sections of an elsketch as informal just like item tags. Check tinnings by pulling a little on them and when in doubt also check with an ohm-meter before power is on (after short-circuiting any mf capacitors connected). Remember that unless otherwise stated you can improvise freely as to just how you tin something to something else -- anywhere along a wire already tinned to one of them you can un-insulated by the tinner, say, -- it's not that you have to put more than one wire to each component. Don't overheat transistors and such -- a brief tinning to a wire, and let each cool before next tinning. If a twisted pair of modulators (say) seems not to be tight enough, it's best to tin them also. * Get the POWER SUPPLY wires and be sure of which wire is which, and get them tinned to suitable wires of different color with some length on the grid. * Tin POWER-SUPPLY E-POLE (what we also called 'ground') to E-PIN of LED, and the other pin of the led to BLINK-1 TRANSISTOR's E-PIN. * Tin POWER-SUPPLY E-POLE to BLINK-0 TRANSISTOR'S E-PIN. * Tin POWER-SUPPLY PLUS-POLE to BLINK-1 POWER modulator, and the other pin of this modulator to C-PIN of BLINK-1 TRANSISTOR. * Tin POWER-SUPPLY PLUS-POLE to BLINK-0 POWER modulator, and the other pin of this modulator to C-PIN of BLINK-0 TRANSISTOR. * Tin BLINK-1 M-PIN modulator to, guess what, M-PIN of BLINK-1 TRANSISTOR, and the other pin of this modulator to POWER-SUPPLY E-POLE (ground). * We're soon done, the BLINK-1 INPUT CAPACITOR, which is polarised, -- pick its PLUS PIN and tin this pin to the C-PIN of BLINK-0 TRANSISTOR. The other pin of this capacitor you put to to the 'input', that is to say, the M-PIN of BLINK-1 TRANSISTOR. * The BLINK-0 INPUT CAPACITOR is fitted vice versa: its PLUS PIN goes to C-PIN of BLINK-1 TRANSISTOR. Its other pin goes to the 'input' or M-PIN of BLINK-0 TRANSISTOR. COMPONENT COMMENTS -- READ BEFORE TINNING AS FOR TRANSISTORS see the 1st AM MW radio description for C, M, E pins -- mentaly mnemonics for Collector, Middle pin, Emitter pin is "CoMe Easy!" -- and this is the sequence that the data work with the elsketch emulator on the PC has, it has C M E as 1 2 3. Transistors, CoMe Easy! This is OUR sequence, logically we might say. In practise, check with each transistor you use what the physical sequence of the pins are. By the way, transistors may quickly have to be replaced when one tries first one thing, then another, and esp. if one has forgotten to switch power supply off. If something appears to be totally without any meaningful functionality, look to the transistors -- take them out and check the 'voltage drop' as explained in one of the first elsketches (ie, that red measurement pin on 'P' and black on either of the 'N' pins do let volt through but not the reverse direction, for an NPN or PNP transistor; and that, given very precise measurement, the voltage drop between middle pin and collector is slightly less than between middle and emitter). AS FOR GREEN SIGNAL LED by 20th century conventions, the long one is usually the one that we will bend at the middle in a straight corner to indicate PLUS pole, so that the other pin gets more the apparence of being the longest and the E-POLE pin. Do this. If in doubt which pin is which, put something like two 2.2k modulators after one another in series followed by the green signal then connect to the power supply in the way you think is right. (Don't overload such led's with volt esp. not the other way around; they'll light up only in the right direction when they are intact.) AS FOR POLARISED CAPACITORS see theory above as to why they can be used and as to what interpretation one can give such poles when things are connected in such intricate ways as above. by 20th century conventions, there may be a 'minus' (dash, -) on the E-POLE part of them. Bend the other pin in the middle, a straight corner (90 degrees), to indicate that the other pin is PLUS, and let the longest be E-POLE -- you may want to bend pins of components a little apart to reduce chance of short-circuiting them, but take care not to apply too much pressure from the pins on the items themselves nearest the items. has the main #5558888 Elsketch emulation app, and it also provides this link, which we replicate here, which formalises some of this MUTU1 work as data for the Elsketch app, app# 1115550. YOU HAVE TINNED IT -- NOW GET IT UP!!!!! Take care to put wires to it tentatively -- tin in only one of them, switch on power supply, and apply the other with all normal security precautions. Read above how you can try various things and that you have to discharge the capacitors to neutralise the elsketch if you have done too much experiment and need them to get back to normal. This is, by the way, a feature that in one way or another we'll make use of when it comes to making our first bits of a digital type of ultra-mini-RAM in digital explorations using transistor elsketches. Best of lucks! ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________