BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) OVERVIEW OVER ONLINE AVAILABLE ELSKETCH PROJECTS -- -- THESE HAVE ALL BEEN CAREFULLY STUDIED IN REAL LIFE, NOT JUST AS AN EMULATION ON A COMPUTER, AND FOUND TO WORK AS PROMISED; NOTE THAT SUCH AS AM MW RADIOS IS -- FOR ANY LONG-RANGE USE -- EXTREMELY TIED UP TO ALL SORTS OF WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT IS NIGHTTIME ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ For the G15 Multiversity: Background works Also part of the Stamash Educational CenterS, SECS For general info about G15 Yoga6dorg see also In general terms, we might use the following vocabulary: Each Elsketch project constitutes also a report over successfully completed electronics development and implementation work, in a sense a bit of 'neopopperian research', intended to be replicated in an improvised, intuitive, playful way by anybody who likes to educate herself in this way. This report is dated August 21, 2013. For general info about copyright confer the spirit of honoring acknowledgements as found in our ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Elsketch: Make a Mini AM MW Radio Transmitter -- Twist a radio inside-out in the fifth dimension (more or less;) and you've got a transmitter [note: for ease of composing the materials, frequent mentions in the Elsketch texts are made of things which belong to the future -- future Elsketch activities include making even a whole G15 computer, and parallel activities are also referred to in the same manner, such as the chemical educational activity we have named Atomlite. apart from these references to things not yet done as if they have been done, each elsketch project describes a project actually carried out to success, and well tested, and fully doable in the present by following the instructions.] THE MINI MW RADIO TRANSMITTER You have made a radio, right? The AM MW radio takes in all sorts of stations but, alas, not exactly the right one -- the right one you have to make yourself ;) Do you want to do this? ************THEN*READ*THIS*FIRST********************** ****WE*PUT*IN*THIS*TEXT*WHETHER*THE*TRANSMITTER******* ****SENDS*A*DOZEN*METERS*OR*THOUSANDS*OF*KILOMETERS*** PROBABLY NOT LEGAL TO DO RADIO TRANMISSION, AT LEAST IF IT INTERFERES WITH ANYTHING, ANYWHERE. AND WHATEVER YOU DO ABOUT RADIO TRANSMISSION IS SOMETHING YOU'RE GOING TO DO BECAUSE YOU HAVE WORKED OUT WHAT'S LEGAL AND ACCEPTABLE IN YOUR SOCIETY, AND NOT BECAUSE THERE WAS ANYTHING HERE THAT RECOMMENDED YOU TO DO IT. ALRIGHT, ALSO WORK OUT WHAT ROOM THERE MAY BE IN INTERPRETATION OF THESE LAWS (WHAT AMOUNT OF SECONDS FOR EDUCTIONAL INSPIRATION ONE MIGHT TURN ON EQUIPMENT THAT CAN SEND TO MORE OR LESS EVERYONE ON THE PLANET AND SUCH). ======> THIS IS ON YOUR OWN RESPONSIBILITY -- WE HAVE NOT GIVEN ANYTHING BUT OUR DESTILLATION AND ELEVATION OF PRINCIPLES THAT HAVE BEEN WELL KNOWN, MORE OR LESS, THROUGHOUT THE TWENTIETH CENTURY -- ON THE PREMISE OF THE JOY OF SELF-EDUCATION, AND THE LEARNING OF VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TRANSISTOR ELECTRONICS. RELATED LEGAL STUFF MENTIONED ON THE MAIN PAGE OF THE ELSKETCH -- THE OPENING PAGE. DO CONSULT THIS ALSO. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT. ************READ*THE*ABOVE*FIRST********************** BEFORE YOU BEGIN, MAKE THE STEEL GRID First, you make a steel grid as with the 1st radio module. The steel grid is normally more stable if you put the steel wires alternatively over and under one another as you construct it -- with a sense of 'knitting'. Tie up variously colored plastic-isolated thin steel wires (eg 0.6-0.7mm) of various lengths at suitable positions intuitively decided. COMPONENT LIST -- MINI MW RADIO TRANSMITTER This is a Mini MW Radio transmitter but there is no doubt that given the right size antenna, the right power amplifier of audio input, and a good frequency without competition from anything, it can transmit high quality good sound around the planet. GENERAL *** a very noiseless high-quality power supply giving at least 1.5 A at 12 volt -- note that if you measure with a voltmeter usually a power supply will, depending on exact design, give a reading somewhat higher than 12 volt unless put to much work; that's fine, and it's always part of elsketching to do things with a room for a variation of many volts -- unless we do it with chips of a sensitive nature mentally tagged: "power supply" *** one 1000 mf polarised capacitor handling several times 12 volt at least (we use this even though the power supply here is supposed to be high quality because this is a radio transmitter) mentally tagged: "big power smoother" *** one 10 mf polarised capacitor handling several times 12 volt at least (we use this even though we've already used a 1000 mf because this is kind'a standard at power input) mentally tagged: "small power smoother" *** one source of music or such, perhaps a computer playing a recording you like, or microphone-inputted sound where you can unconnect and reconnect the loadspeakers easily, to check what you have put on, and get two wires from it carrying the amplified sound -- preferrably with a volume control on the amplifier part of this source of music so that you can fine-tune just how much volt comes out in the wires. note that not all constructions of amplifiers are suitable. some amplifier constructions can simply take the oscillation out of the mini transmitter when we connect it. the best bet is a rugged big robust music player open to a variety of connections. it's a necessity that it has a power amplifier as part of it -- strong enough that can drive a loudspeaker loudly, not merely make some little squeeks in a headphone or the like. "music source" *** a maybe 3m antenna made of 1mm steel wire (see practical notes, and notes also as for carefulness when it comes to any transmissions antennas, in components notes below) -- and be ready to make more than one antenna so we can check the transmitter from various positions "antenna" OSCILLATOR *** one NPN BC547C 45 volt or more transistor "oscillator transistor" *** one 1k modulator "oscillator power" *** one AM MW ferrite coil -- it should be the same as on the AM MW radio you should have beside this transmitter in order to begin to check how it works and it can well be one that you have made yourself "oscillator coil" -- and have an extra chunk of ferrite for fine-tuning of transmitter by putting it fairly near but not touching, usually (be sure that the 1st radio module you have on has the same number of turns on the same shape ferrite and a similar enough range of the variable capacitor that you can get them to connect immediately, as soon as the transmitter works) *** one AM MW variable capacitor (e.g., a dozen picofarad up to ca 200 picofarad) of the type that works with radio, and it can well be one that you have made yourself "frequency selector" *** one 1k modulator "osc m-pin" *** one 100k modulator "osc e-pin" *** one 560 pf capacitor "osc output" HF AMPLITUDE *** one NPN BC547C 45 volt or more transistor "amplitude transistor" (again, the radio module tells of which pin is which) *** one ca 1730 ohm modulator (see note below -- three 2.2k in parallel put in series with 1k gives you exactly it) "amplitude power" *** one 50 kohm modulator -- you can twist two 100 kohm modulators together in parallel to get it "amplitude bridge" *** one 560 pf capacitor "amplitude output" TINNING INSTRUCTIONS -- MINI MW RADIO TRANSMITTER Standard recommendations: Pls read comments after the tinning instructions BEFORE tinning. Take extra care with getting transistors and mf capacitors right. Switch power on only after looking at the elsketch very very carefully -- and then keep SAFE distance! This is your own responsibility. Don't do it if you're uncertain about the effects of doing this! Use much light & magnifiers. Regard names of sections of an elsketch as informal just like item tags. Check tinnings by pulling a little on them and when in doubt also check with an ohm-meter before power is on (after short-circuiting any mf capacitors connected). Remember that unless otherwise stated you can improvise freely as to just how you tin something to something else -- anywhere along a wire already tinned to one of them you can un-insulated by the tinner, say, -- it's not that you have to put more than one wire to each component. Don't overheat transistors and such -- a brief tinning to a wire, and let each cool before next tinning. If a twisted pair of modulators (say) seems not to be tight enough, it's best to tin them also. POWER * Get the POWER SUPPLY wires and be sure of which wire is which, and get them tinned to suitable wires of different color with some length on the grid. Tin polarised BIG POWER SMOOTHER capacitor to the incoming wires from power supply, taking great care to get the polarities rightly aligned: the plus pole of the power supply to the plus pole of the capacitor, the E pole of the power supply ("-") to the E pole of the capacitor ("-"). * Tin also the SMALL POWER SMOOTHER carefully in, in parallel with the big capacitor, plus pole to plus pole, E pole to E pole. OSCILLATOR * Tin the OSCILLATOR COIL to the FREQUENCY SELECTOR, parallel, that is to say, pin 1 to pin 1 and pin 2 to pin 2, and keep the frequency selector near you and with room to tune it. Keep in mind also that we're interested in moving the position of the whole transmitter so as to check how it works relative to a radio that is at some distance. This may also mean that you prepare more than one antenna, as said. The frequency selector -- the variable capacitor -- is likely to give a little bit different frequency when the transmitter has warmed up a bit. This in addition to the natural sense of shifting that sometimes take place at MW due to the interaction with the atmosphere, Sun and such. Put a ferrite chunk near but not touching to the coil and experiment for the highest quality of transmission -- angle, distance etc. Let's be clear that by adding the number of transistors one can be more selective, reduce noise, etc, and it's just as rediculous as adding more colors and more resolution to the computer monitor when it already works. The minitx -- despite its name -- is a mega transmitter that rocks your city when you switch it on correctly. * Tin pin 1 of OSCILLATOR COIL to C-pin of the OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR. (For which pin is what pin of BC547 and such see the 1st radio module.) * Tin pin 2 of OSCILLATOR COIL to OSC M-PIN modulator, and the other side of the modulator to M-PIN of the the OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR. * Tin C-PIN of the OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR to the OSCILLATOR POWER modulator. Tin the other side of this modulator to the plus pole (not E pole) of the POWER SUPPLY. Read about the notion of 'suspending' a coil-capacitor by using NPN instead of PNP as we do in this case in the info we gave relative to the radio. * Tin E-PIN of the OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR to the E pole of the POWER SUPPLY. * Tin E-PIN of the OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR to OSC E-PIN modulator, and the other side of this modulator to the M-PIN of the same transistor. This connection to the E-pole of the power supply through a big modulator allows the coil-capacitor circuit to get a little respite from all the plus volt given to it. * Tin C-PIN of the OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR to the capacitor tagged OSC OUTPUT. Tin the other side of this capacitor to M-PIN of the AMPLITUDE TRANSISTOR. * Tin the C-PIN of OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR also to the main wire from the powerful amplifier that has the music source. Some other positions are possible but there are various sideeffects of these positions. For a two-transistor AM MW transmitter, this seems to be the right position. Tin the other wire, the ground wire, from the MUSIC SOURCE, to the E pole of the POWER SUPPLY. It's pretty hard to make the frequency change unless you target the change of frequency directly, somehow -- and that suits us fine, as we despise frequency modulation and the very high frequencies typically used with it in the late 20th century idiotic replacement of focus on genuine stimulating AM -- FM at very high frequencies only goes as far as one can see, put simply, so why not shout? -- . We want the amplitude to change and the frequency to be relatively stable, and that's generally what happens if we blend the two and the oscillator on its own is stable enough and this is. Be sure that you get the volume adjusted first thing after you have switched it on for the first time -- you will find that any residue buzz in the power supply of 50 hertz or so will be reduced by utilising much of the power in your power amplifier used to pump music into the transistor. It will then be encouraged to enhance the amplitude of the oscillation alongside the very much lower frequencies of the audio range; this is then destilled through the output capacitor and the amplitude enormously amplified by the next transistor. ..AND THE AMPLITUDE MODULATION, AM * Tin the AMPLITUDE TRANSISTOR's C-PIN to the AMPLITUDE POWER modulator (which like any modulator can be a combination of several modulators), and tin the other side of this modulator to the plus pole of the POWER SUPPLY. * Tin the AMPLITUDE TRANSISTOR's C-PIN also to the AMPLITUDE BRIDGE and the other side of the bridge modulator to the M-PIN of same transistor. This is a bridge to the activation of this transistor, since such NPN transistors needs a little bit positive on the middle to have anything flow through them. This slight activation has the output from the oscillator, and the music source which modifies its amplitude, added to it, and it all becomes a vast radio station, one with political effects ;) * Tin E-PIN of the AMPLITUDE TRANSISTOR to the E pole of the POWER SUPPLY. * Tin C-PIN of the AMPLITUDE TRANSISTOR to the OUTPUT CAPACITOR, and the other side of this capacitor to a wire that then goes to the ANTENNA (be sure that you don't strain the capacitor item by wiring it to the antenna directly -- it should be tinned to a wired that is neatly tied to the steel grid, so that it doesn't get the physical tension of being pulled at when the elsketch is moved a little bit). Note that we have a capacitor that's at least twice the size of the variable capacitor between the submodules in this elsketch, and also so as to shield the whole elsketch from some of the volt that might build up in the antenna. DONE! COMPONENT COMMENTS -- READ BEFORE TINNING AS FOR TRANSISTORS see the 1st AM MW radio description for C, M, E pins -- mentaly mnemonics for Collector, Middle pin, Emitter pin is "CoMe Easy!" -- and this is the sequence that the data work with the elsketch emulator on the PC has, it has C M E as 1 2 3. Transistors, CoMe Easy! This is OUR sequence, logically we might say. In practise, check with each transistor you use what the physical sequence of the pins are. AS FOR MUSIC SOURCE it should be a good quality one, with little noise of any type in its output, which should come in the form of two wires, one for ground and one for main audio output. it must have a smooth volume control so that you can put it to a little bit -- not too much -- and fine-tune it there. you should know what it comes with of music, so that when you try to pick up your transmission, you'll recognise it at once. it must be of a construction that doesn't suck the oscillation energy out of the oscillator. if you think the music source doesn't work with your elsketch try to transmit nothing at all -- have it unconnected -- and see if you can get the radio to pick up the buzz of the sending wave by varying the sender frequency. then if this sending wave vanishes when you connect the music source or amplifier, change to another music source or amplifier! [[[hints for how you might do this in the present context where many music players have a three or even four tiny jackplug for output to stereo loadspeaker or headphones, and optionally also an input for microphone on the same: first of all, don't assume that a laptop type of PC with it's sucking little output will work without putting in some extra components between the computer and the transmitter. it must be a effect watt power audio amplifier after it. a much better bet is music player box that has a headphone outlet of a more general, powerful, robust type. then get an extra jackplug with headphones inexpensively, that does work with the amplifier -- or music player -- and cut the wire so that you have loads of wire after the jack plug; then carefully without tinner, with tool, take off the outmost plastic and don't swear too loud when you see all the microscopic cables within it with yet more isolation and confusing threads around them; diligently keep on un-isolating, eg by heating up the plastic, each one of these; to each candidate you tin a decent standard little wire, and keep apart from all the others; then you get the amplifier you used for the radio or another amplifier and set the computer volume to a reduced amount. Then -- and this can in some imaginable cases destroy the sound card or more of the computer, if you without intending to shortcircuit or put volt through to the computer -- connect two and two cables to the amplifier until you get a decent sound; also try switching the two so that you work out which one should be called 'ground' and which should be called 'main'; then tape the others carefully away with tape over each and then taped into a bundle so they don't distract and keep on taping until the two strong wires stand out, and write on the tape the colors of the tiny wires they connect to in case you have to do it again -- such tiny cables don't last forever, especially not when we mess with them -- and which one is ground and which one is main. But you should apply infinite care if you do this with a computer you love a lot. Best to do it with a music player that's inexpensive before you try it with a computer -- and be sure to know that there are differences in required ohm for the receptor of these amplifier outputs and so this transmitter may work better with some amplifier types than others. Use equipment here only if you're willing to take the moderate risk it is that it won't survive the experiment. When you do it on your own, with your own equipment, it's all your own responsibility, alright? in providing educational surroundings, we have of course tested that the particular combinations we advice do work out well. However you do it, good luck!]]] AS FOR MODULATORS the ca 1730 ohm modulator in the list you can create -- in order to employ more of the batch of modulators ('resistors') we used had for the AM MW radio, namely 1k and 2.2k -- by twisting three 2.2k together carefully around in their long steel pins, in parallel -- that's about 733 ohm, a third of 2200 ohm -- then twisting one side of this to a 1000 ohm modulator, putting it in series. We say here twist because tinning is normally the best approach when two pins meet. If more than two pins meet, it is, where the length of the pins allow it without damage to the item, best to make a spiral out of them so as to fasten them strongly to one another, and THEN tin the extra pin to this spiral. AS FOR ANTENNAS FOR TRANSMITTERS the ca 3m antenna made of 1mm steel wire or such you e.g. put horisontally out in the room, if the room has a good sense of connectivity to the world of the aether, or you may want to put it sideways up on the wall; it doesn't have to be straight; make sure this steel wire is strapped to something near the elsketch work you do, so it doesn't pull the whole thing with itself if the antenna is moved a little; and get a normal tiny wire tinned to, don't connect it directly (check carefully for unintended consequences of some antennas in some circumstances; put a high-power-capacity modulator, not volume control because these are rarely high-power-capacity but will burn easily, to diminish the quantity of volt if you find you are transmitting straight into the kitchen zink of your neighbour or worse, and AGAIN pls do check the laws of your society and be a responsible social citizen, it's unlikely you'll find these laws congratulating you on making your own medium wave AM transmission of love music and your own nice comments) [but with luck you may obtain a license and evolve a new station and the ether does need new stations, not just by mega-big companies, right?] let's note that antennas for some types of transmitters in some context do matter a lot more as for their design than for radios: after all, they are supposed to dispose of very sizable chunks of electromagetic waves to the ether, not merely to read tiny vibrations off it. so the more HF watt is put to the antenna, the more such questions as these may arise: is the antenna actually shaped so that it throws the waves out in a meaningful direction? is possibly the antenna shaped so that it builds up a self-feeding resonance, keeping the waves in place -- socalled 'standing waves' -- instead of letting them escape into the air? -- if the latter takes place, will it be a build-up of electricity that might feed back into the radio transmitter? so, a 20th century tradition called 'radio amateurs' taught each other a lot of techniques and made tons of formulas for how to make the most out of the petty licenses they had been given by the authorities so as to establish some communication in the dreadfully noncommunicative societies within which they existed. however the present design of the present AM MW transmitter should work just fine also for you regarding the things we mentioned -- because it is, though there are few components, cleverly made. [again, please regard this as educational; we're all strictly law-abiding here, right? ;) meaning that if it works really well, you'd better not use it at all, after having established that. good to get that said! ;) at any rate, for the nth time: we give this in an idealistic spirit, wishing not to disrupt society but to further private education and enthusiasm for real understanding of also electronics reality. you're in touch with real power here. the power mustn't corrupt you. 'kay?] what we said about standing waves is however no joke: during transmission, you should be aware not to be too certain that you know the voltages involved. if you have a robust analog voltmeter -- especially one that can be used on FC, frequency current, with a diod or such -- check how things are before touching anything; and be ready to switch anything off if it starts smelling or looking like something is burning. for this reason, you should have a fresh look as to whether you have adequate fire safety in the lab where you do the elsketch work. do you have some nonflammable type of cloth that you can use to quench flames with? do you have a bottle of water? do you have a small woolen cloth ready in your pocket which is help for your fingers if you have to rip a burning bit out of something so the bit doesn't enflame other things? does your body have enough clothes on of a kind that doesn't go up in flames if they get a glowing this or other near them? and is the room in general in a house that has adequate fire safety as a whole? and do you have a mindfulness about these things, so that you don't get into a shock but keep cool and act rightly if there's an issue, even if fire alarms start shrieking like wild? keeping cool in a crises is much more easy if you do a meditation on your preparedness for the extreme possibilities, not just affirming that all will go well but ALSO affirming that all will go well, after such meditations or premeditations. [[[Mountable data app for input to elsketch emulator in G15 comes as a link to a .zip here:]]] YOU HAVE TINNED IT -- NOW GET IT UP!!!!! Put on music source -- listen to it first, and adjust it so that it is pleasant and clear but not too high, then let it go into the elsketch instead of into loudspeaker. It must be a well-shielded, powerful amplifier -- not everyone may have the right 'impedance' or ohm-requirement at its output, and some may have polarities reversed, and such, so you may have to try one, two, three amplifier before you get it, and maybe put in a ca 500 nf or higher capacitor to as a shield between the transmitter and the amplifier. Experiment with volume control -- which, for least noise and most endurance of control,, in general, should have steps and not be a slider control -- as for what gives best radio reception at a distance. Put on your elsketch radio, and adjust it to maybe about the middle of the most functional range of the variable capacitor (if it is the type that is made by sliding two metal sheaves, that means that it is probably slid off somewhat more than half the way to fully slid off, if you know what I mean). Adjust it so that it isn't tuned into any station but only receives the kind of noise associated with there being a space on the MW band right there for now. Put on the power to the elsketch transmitter, with due care if it is the first time -- check that nothing goes up in smoke etc; and of course you have checked that all tinnings are intact and no component has suspiciously few wires to it and such; and also there is no shortcircuiting. Adjust the frequency selector of the transmitter until the radio receives. If no match, try adjust the variable capacitors a little one way, then another way. If still no match, turn off the power and go over the wiring carefully, check the polarities. Be ready to use a voltmeter to check volt here and there. Turn up the volume a little. And so on. When -- yes, WHEN -- you do receive, fine-tune the volume, then fine-tune the ferrite chunk position that should lie beside, not touching, the coil of the transmitter. When you have satisfactory reception at an empty place at MW, get on the conventional radio and find it there. Then go a dozen meter away and see if you can get a signal. The art of correcting an elsketch has many similarities to the art of correcting a G15 program. Volumes could be written about it. It's great therefore to work with someone who is experienced. EDUCATIONAL COMMENT ABOUT OTHER THINGS Let's note that if you're just beginning out on reading about electronics elsketch modules, and have looked into such as radio and then this transmitter, the pathway to a real full G15 computer is a long pathway, but the direction is right. Now let's just consider the amount of cycles pr second that the oscillator in the transmitter (and radio) is generating. It's e.g. 900.000 cycles pr second (just to take a number -- it can be also 1.400.000 and it's still called MW). Nine hundred thousand. Okay, now imagine that by each of these cycles, we activated a bunch of transistors, capacitors and modulators so that, what with one thing and another, something of a G15 program instruction got performed by them -- over a vast grid of stuff that can store electrical impulses, maybe capacitors (ferrite-like stuff can be used esp. when speed is not that important, such as with more permanent storage like disks), and that acts like RAM, the computer memory. By turning the capacitor to a higher frequency you would be able to, so to speak, push the gas pedal of the computer so as to drive it faster! We're talking the very same type of cycles which are required to drive the G15 CPU (whether we call it 'chip' or not -- it would have to be composed of many many thousand of modules). A cycle could maybe activate another series of small cycles so that the G15 instruction number is first fetched from RAM, the instruction address (NINS, Next INStruction adddress) is updated, the number is worked out as to what it matches, the operation is done -- over such-and-such many tiny cycles. Best of lucks! ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________