BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) OVERVIEW OVER ONLINE AVAILABLE ELSKETCH PROJECTS -- -- THESE HAVE ALL BEEN CAREFULLY STUDIED IN REAL LIFE, NOT JUST AS AN EMULATION ON A COMPUTER, AND FOUND TO WORK AS PROMISED; NOTE THAT SUCH AS AM MW RADIOS IS -- FOR ANY LONG-RANGE USE -- EXTREMELY TIED UP TO ALL SORTS OF WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT IS NIGHTTIME ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ For the G15 Multiversity: Background works Also part of the Stamash Educational CenterS, SECS For general info about G15 Yoga6dorg see also In general terms, we might use the following vocabulary: Each Elsketch project constitutes also a report over successfully completed electronics development and implementation work, in a sense a bit of 'neopopperian research', intended to be replicated in an improvised, intuitive, playful way by anybody who likes to educate herself in this way. This report is dated September 6, 2013. For general info about copyright confer the spirit of honoring acknowledgements as found in our ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Elsketch: Audio Micro-amplifier -- to enhance output from 1st radio module or provide better input to the mini-tx [note: for ease of composing the materials, frequent mentions in the Elsketch texts are made of things which belong to the future -- future Elsketch activities include making even a whole G15 computer, and parallel activities are also referred to in the same manner, such as the chemical educational activity we have named Atomlite. apart from these references to things not yet done as if they have been done, each elsketch project describes a project actually carried out to success, and well tested, and fully doable in the present by following the instructions.] MICRAMP1: AUDIO MICRO-AMPLIFIER IN TWO FORMS This is what the 1st radio module needs to become more properly amplified before input to some amplifiers with loudspeakers (VARIATION A); and this may be just what you need to some sound sources to connect to the mini-tx AM MW transmitter (VARIATION B, which can be further varied along the lines indicated). It is a transistor, our normal type used in plenty of elsketches, the BC547C, wrapped up with modulators here and there and a capacitor. Please note that when you connect modules to one another, the voltages of these modules may interact both ways, not just the intended ways. And so these things should fit, and in some cases it won't be clear whether they fit before you try it out. Read the comments at the completion of this page before switching it on, in ANY context, thanks! BEFORE YOU BEGIN, MAKE THE STEEL GRID First, you make a steel grid as with the 1st radio module. The steel grid is normally more stable if you put the steel wires alternatively over and under one another as you construct it -- with a sense of 'knitting'. Tie up variously colored plastic-isolated thin steel wires (eg 0.6-0.7mm) of various lengths at suitable positions intuitively decided. COMPONENT LIST -- AUDIO MICRO-AMPLIFIER IN TWO VARIATIONS *** 12V power supply, as good quality as one can get, and fitted with high mf polarised capacitors with the correct polarity (see other elsketches about this) and such for noise reduction if need be mentally tagged: "power supply" *** one NPN BC547C 45 volt or more transistor tagged: "amplifier transistor" *** one 1k modulator "amplifier power" *** one 2.2k modulator "amplifier e-pin" *** one 69nf capacitor "output capacitor" (see note elsewhere on this page as for possible variation of this) *** for VARIATION A of the micro-amplifier: no more modulators necessary (for info on the two variations and how to use the micro-amplifier see notes at the completion of this page) *** for VARIATION B of the micro-amplifier: the two following modulators are also necessary: *** one 333 ohm modulator (eg, three 1k modulators twisted together in parallel) "input" *** one 1.5k modulator (eg, two 1k modulators twisted together in parallel, in series with one more 1k modulator) "amplifier m-pin" *** Connector wires going to this elsketch: "power supply plus wire" "power supply ground wire" (also called e-pole) "input main wire" "input ground wire" "output main wire" "output ground wire" TINNING INSTRUCTIONS -- AUDIO MICROAMPLIFIER Standard recommendations: Pls read comments after the tinning instructions BEFORE tinning. Take extra care with getting transistors and mf capacitors right. Switch power on only after looking at the elsketch very very carefully -- and then keep SAFE distance! This is your own responsibility. Don't do it if you're uncertain about the effects of doing this! Use much light & magnifiers. Regard names of sections of an elsketch as informal just like item tags. Check tinnings by pulling a little on them and when in doubt also check with an ohm-meter before power is on (after short-circuiting any mf capacitors connected). Remember that unless otherwise stated you can improvise freely as to just how you tin something to something else -- anywhere along a wire already tinned to one of them you can un-insulated by the tinner, say, -- it's not that you have to put more than one wire to each component. Don't overheat transistors and such -- a brief tinning to a wire, and let each cool before next tinning. If a twisted pair of modulators (say) seems not to be tight enough, it's best to tin them also. * Get the POWER SUPPLY wires and be sure of which wire is which, and get them tinned to suitable wires of different color with some length on the grid. (Cfr notes about power supplies for other modules below.) * Tin the INPUT GROUND WIRE to the POWER SUPPLY GROUND WIRE and to the OUTPUT GROUND WIRE. * Tin the OUTPUT CAPACITOR to the OUTPUT MAIN WIRE and the other pin of this capacitor to C-PIN of the AMPLIFIER TRANSISTOR. The size of this capacitor can be increased to allow more bass (deeper, slower frequences in the audio range). * Tin the POWER SUPPLY GROUND WIRE to the AMPLIFIER E-PIN MODULATOR, and the other pin of this modulator to the E-PIN of the OSCILLATOR TRANSISTOR. * Tin INPUT MAIN WIRE -- for variation A -- directly to the M-PIN of the AMPLIFIER TRANSISTOR. This completes the microamplifier in the Variation A case. -- For MICRO-AMPLIFIER VARIATION B instead do this: Tin INPUT MAIN WIRE instead to the INPUT MODULATOR, and tin the other pin of this modulator to the M-PIN of the AMPLIFIER TRANSISTOR. Further, also for variation B, Tin AMPLIFIER M-PIN MODULATOR to the M-PIN of the AMPLIFIER TRANSISTOR and tin the other pin of this modulator to POWER SUPPLY PLUS WIRE. This enables inputs with a different volt/ohm scheme than e.g. the output from the 1st radio module to be properly 'listened to' by the transistor here. Note that when you test the variation A, tapping the main input wire with a finger without ground input wire connected will usually lead to a slight tap in the loadspeakers (when these are connected to a full amplifier which again is connected to this microamplifier); but in Variation B, no such tapping sound will normally be heard as there is a requirement for an initial volt of some specific kind to match with these modulators. COMPONENT COMMENTS -- READ BEFORE TINNING AS FOR TRANSISTORS see the 1st AM MW radio description for C, M, E pins -- mentaly mnemonics for Collector, Middle pin, Emitter pin is "CoMe Easy!" -- and this is the sequence that the data work with the elsketch emulator on the PC has, it has C M E as 1 2 3. Transistors, CoMe Easy! [[[Mountable data app for input to elsketch emulator in G15 comes as a link to a .zip here:]]] YOU HAVE TINNED IT -- NOW GET IT UP!!!!! What we call VARIATION A of this Micro-Amplifier module is the easiest one, as it has an input that goes straight into the middle pin of the transistor and that's that. This is what you want when the input is of such a kind as e.g. the output of the elsketch for the 1st radio module. In such a case you'll likely use the same power supply, and so the ground of the 1st radio module and the ground of this micro-amplifier are naturally aligned. Now let's be clear that when you connect one module with transistors to another module with transistors, this has to be done with care, and in some situations, it may scramble a transistor or a coil or loadspeaker or something. Loadspeakers are just coils fitted to magnets, usually, and coils are, as we know, typically copper wire and if this one is very skinny indeed, don't jolt too much ampere through it. (We'll look more into this when we make our own loudspeakers in an elsketch project.) So unless you're willing to take some chances with your modules, you shouldn't connect them. But if you have tinned together such as the radio and you want to enhance the output from it before it goes into a regular amplifier with a loudspeaker, this can be a great way. In such a case, you would usually choose VARIATION A, the simplest one. The microamp can also be a way to lead an output into the mini-tx transmitter from a source that has different expectations as to ohm-requirements and intensity and get the mini-tx to work just smoothly. Usually, you would then choose VARIATION B. Note that there is some volt flow back from the microamplifier that source of sound. If the equipment is excessively sensitive, this volt flow may zap an item or a fuse in it. In some cases, you would want to make the ohm-sizes of the two places VARIATION B has modulators greater (or possibly smaller, but be careful as more volt will flow back into the sound-outputting equipment then). [[[Note for those who sit around with a PC or PC laptop with a headphone opening: yes, this has been tested and found to work fine with Variation B: but please read the rest of this note before doing so. First, to minimize interference with the often ca 5-volt power supply of the laptop, the quality of the interaction seems to become better by running the laptop on batteries instead of connected through power supply to the electric grid. Secondly, anything that oscillates much about your computer -- ethernet connection, wireless or not, bluetooth, TV, HDTV outlet, etc etc -- anything you can shut down of such extra electronics features of your computer, do shut it down. Some of them may completely and utterly reduce any connection through headphone with sensitive equipment such as the MiniTV to be but an amplification of noise. For instance, a laptop connected to internet with a wire, even if the wireless is shut off, even if the bluetooth is shut off, may be absolutely in need of having its plug plugged out. Other things can influence as well -- read the notes again about getting the 1st Radio Module up, where we recommend turning off a number of other devices in the nearby area where you are working. Thirdly, though we have been running this for hours with success -- PC laptops through micro-amplifier variation B into the mini-tx -- and using more than one type of laptop also, in addition to testing with other types of playing equipment -- such a setup, even if it is tinned exactly correctly and you have a very reliable, steady 12 volt power supply -- or better still, a lead acid battery, with no 50 or 60 hertz rippling noise in it -- something CAN happen to at least the sound output part of your laptop or PC and you must be willing to take responsibility ENTIRELY YOURSELF if you do connect hobby electronics equipment to inputs and outputs of consumer gadgets. Here, we can only say that, in a situation where we have lots of backups and we have several laptops, we took the chance and nothing problematic happened but obviously, connecting a 12volt driven electronics module to a place where passive headphones or such are expected can lead to issues for the machine. So you must take responsibility for your machines but it is to be hoped that you find a way to make fruitful use of the micro-amplifier with them in a way that doesn't harm them at all! However, as said, we give no such guarantees here. The Mini-TX transmitter has no objection to the use of an amplifier with several watts as input to itself, and the quality of the result may in some cases be better than by connecting it just from a micro-amplifier like this, depending on the strength of the headphone outlet of the computer. Usually, near full volume at the PC sound control is required. This is a mono-approach to sound, of course, so one will have to pick left or right stereo channel, but at some PCs one may find it possible to assert mono playing mode. See notes in earlier mini-tx connection for how to cut into a wire that has a jackplug in it. Note that this may be next to impossible with the thinnest of headphone wires -- in case, go buy a jackplug with a wire of some more thickness. This is probably better than buying such a tiny stereo jackplug in its bare form as it too easily short-circuits if you tin it directly. As said now repeatedly, you must take responsibility for your handling of PC or what it is that you connect any of these educational hobby electronics modules to. And for sure, only do it after applying extra of the normal checks that the wires and pins don't touch too much and such. You should also use a voltmeter on the jackplug to measure just how much electricity you are about to expose a consumer gadget to before plugging it into it. Good luck!]]] When you use many NPN transistors and let ground be E-POLE and focus much on the PLUS of the power supply, you have a very standard way to make modules that increases the chances of these modules fitting well to one another. Note however that ground -- E-POLE -- is richest in electrons, and it is fruitful that you allow electrons to spread to the air around you; for when you have many machines going, the air may get somewhat electron-less, as the machines may suck electrons out of the molecules of the air, creating what's called 'positive ions' in the air. To counter- balance this, you can have some metal connected to the E-POLE of some extra power supply and let air blow past by this metal (this is a standard ingredient in luxury air conditioning systems). For the same reason, when elsketches sometimes are put inside metal boxes in some way or another, one may connect the E-POLE to the metal of the box. This makes sense when working with low volts such as 12, and when one is consistent about the design of things. Note that however some machinery -- especially engines -- may generate sparks of much higher volts during their operations and there may be interactions between such sparks and grounded metal boxes, interactions that may also cause issues of various kinds. These design considerations must go into any electronics that is to be put to varied and also portable use. How was this made? A general purpose use of a transistor must make some qualified guesses, some good guesses -- and it's important to give the transistor some room to work without trying to squeeze all its functionality out of it. One could imagine, for instance, having somewhat less size of the E-PIN modulator. In some cases this would work. But out of an interest that this module shall fit in as many places as possible and without it easily causing any harm, it makes sense that the modulators aren't overly small. To fit in a transistor means that we have to balance, to modulate, the volt so that the input gets a little bit positive, not too positive. But with a variation in input, this means different-sized modulators. Theories are nice but these were found by trying various alternatives -- but of course, as always in our neopopperian enquiries, guided by intuition. Note that there are other ways of achieving 'shielding' of modules from one another than by modulators. For instance, one can wind two coils around the same ferrite -- creating what in 20th century jargon is called a 'transformer', but the word 'transformator' is more to the point since all and everything is a 'transformer', the word is too general for such a specific item like two-or-more-coils-on-one-core. But since coils have very few ohms to them, this require usually a clear-cut thinking about what else to add on in the process -- usually it means more modulators. The coils may also affect the frequencies that pass through the modulator. The capacitor at the output also helps shielding one module from the next. In some cases, it may be suitable to have such a capacitor at the input as well. Hope you got it to work like you wanted. Best of lucks! ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________