BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) OVERVIEW OVER ONLINE AVAILABLE ELSKETCH PROJECTS -- -- THESE HAVE ALL BEEN CAREFULLY STUDIED IN REAL LIFE, NOT JUST AS AN EMULATION ON A COMPUTER, AND FOUND TO WORK AS PROMISED; NOTE THAT SUCH AS AM MW RADIOS IS -- FOR ANY LONG-RANGE USE -- EXTREMELY TIED UP TO ALL SORTS OF WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT IS NIGHTTIME ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ For the G15 Multiversity: Background works Also part of the Stamash Educational CenterS, SECS For general info about G15 Yoga6dorg see also In general terms, we might use the following vocabulary: Each Elsketch project constitutes also a report over successfully completed electronics development and implementation work, in a sense a bit of 'neopopperian research', intended to be replicated in an improvised, intuitive, playful way by anybody who likes to educate herself in this way. This report is dated August 26, 2013. For general info about copyright confer the spirit of honoring acknowledgements as found in our ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Elsketch: Your first electronic gateway into Boolean logic -- Boolean logic is nothing without the "not": from using the transistor in a radio and such, let's make the tinest possible elsketch which shines light when shadowed [note: for ease of composing the materials, frequent mentions in the Elsketch texts are made of things which belong to the future -- future Elsketch activities include making even a whole G15 computer, and parallel activities are also referred to in the same manner, such as the chemical educational activity we have named Atomlite. apart from these references to things not yet done as if they have been done, each elsketch project describes a project actually carried out to success, and well tested, and fully doable in the present by following the instructions.] YOUR FIRST GATEWAY INTO BOOLEAN LOGIC: COMBAT THE SHADOWS Get hold of a light-sensitive modulator (also called 'photoresistor' in 20th century jargon), and a green led BEFORE YOU BEGIN, MAKE THE STEEL GRID First, you make a steel grid as with the 1st radio module. The steel grid is normally more stable if you put the steel wires alternatively over and under one another as you construct it -- with a sense of 'knitting'. Tie up variously colored plastic-isolated thin steel wires (eg 0.6-0.7mm) of various lengths at suitable positions intuitively decided. COMPONENT LIST -- ANTI-SHADOWER GENERAL *** 12 volt straight current power supply "power supply" ANTI-SHADOWER (AS) *** one NPN BC547C 45 volt or more transistor "as transistor" *** one 2.2k modulator "as power" *** one 50k modulator (eg two 100k in parallel) "as m-pin" *** one light-sensitive modulator (also called 'photoresistor' in 20th century terminology), going into above 100000 ohm when it encounters a dark shadow, otherwise, with very bright light straight on, going into 500 ohm or less; this type of thing is not normally polarised (so any of its two pins can be regard as pin 1) "lsm" *** one green led indicator that will light up at 2 or 2.1 volt or so and that can handle several more volt; this one is polarised (see component comments underneath) "led" TINNING INSTRUCTIONS -- 1ST GATEWAY INTO BOOLEAN LOGIC Standard recommendations: Pls read comments after the tinning instructions BEFORE tinning. Take extra care with getting transistors and mf capacitors right. Switch power on only after looking at the elsketch very very carefully -- and then keep SAFE distance! This is your own responsibility. Don't do it if you're uncertain about the effects of doing this! Use much light & magnifiers. Regard names of sections of an elsketch as informal just like item tags. Check tinnings by pulling a little on them and when in doubt also check with an ohm-meter before power is on (after short-circuiting any mf capacitors connected). Remember that unless otherwise stated you can improvise freely as to just how you tin something to something else -- anywhere along a wire already tinned to one of them you can un-insulated by the tinner, say, -- it's not that you have to put more than one wire to each component. Don't overheat transistors and such -- a brief tinning to a wire, and let each cool before next tinning. If a twisted pair of modulators (say) seems not to be tight enough, it's best to tin them also. POWER * Get the POWER SUPPLY wires and be sure of which wire is which. * Tin PLUS pole of POWER SUPPLY to PIN 1 of AS POWER modulator. Tin PIN 2 of this modulator to PLUS pole of LED. * Tin E-POLE of LED to C-PIN of AS TRANSISTOR. The idea here is that current -- plus current -- flows through the LED to the transistor. (When connecting something in series like this, one shouldn't take the idea of the poles of the items in the middle of the series as telling of what the pole is relative to the power supply.) * Tin PIN 1 of AS M-PIN modulator to the M-PIN of the AS TRANSISTOR. Tin PIN 2 of AS M-PIN modulator to C-PIN of AS TRANSISTOR (as one example). * Tin E-POLE of POWER SUPPLY to E-PIN of AS TRANSISTOR, and also to PIN 1 of LSM. * Tin PIN 2 of LSM to M-PIN of AS TRANSISTOR. DONE! COMPONENT COMMENTS -- READ BEFORE TINNING AS FOR LSM test it with ohm-meter while trying total shadow and very bright light straight on it, if isn't wildly beating -- both ways -- the 50k modulator on the middle pin, adjust this modulator AS FOR LED these crystal-based little lights are funny fellows: they conduct beautifully when given more than some volt, but nothing at all when given just a little bit volt; and yet, only in one direction. So don't expect an ohm-meter to make much sense out of a led. By noticing the amount of volt a led should want to give a nice green signal, you can put several of these in series so it adds up to some 10-12 volt, and then put them to a 12 volt power supply just to see that they work -- or the power supply works. Be sure to notice that in 20th century tradition for led's, the shortest pin is the E-pole, and we want normally the longest to be E-pole. So take the longest pin and bend it so that the one most outstretched is the E-pole. When doing them in series, connect each E-pole pin in one to the plus-pole in the next. [[[Mountable data app for input to elsketch emulator in G15 comes as a link to a .zip here:]]] YOU HAVE TINNED IT -- NOW GET IT UP!!!!! The idea here is that the M-PIN -- the middle pin, the regulator pin of the flow through the transistor, gets two competing influences: it gets a trickle through the 50k ohm from the plus pole, and it gets anything from a tiny tiny trickle (when there is a shadow) to something much bigger than a trickle from the e-pole (when there is a light), due to the light-sensitive modulator. A shadow means, then, that the middle pin gets no opposition, it becomes positive, and the green signal led will shine nicely. If you haven't got a strong light in suitable distance, then you can use a weaker light if you shine it straight onto the lsm. Shine it straight onto it, and there will be no green signal. The green signal comes on when there's a shadow or full darkness around the lsm. The green signal is composed of a certain type of crystal so that it has features about it that is -- as with all crystals and crystalline elements in electronics -- very much a q-field (quantum-like, near key elements in supermodel theory, rather than pp-field, or push-pull fields, as in some machines). One of the q-field things here is that it allows current in only one direction -- a bit like how it is between the middle pin and any one of the other pins of a transistor, only that here, current must be beyond a minimum volt for its ohm to get reduced to a level where it will allow anything to flow through it. The light-sensitive modulator, or LSM, is also having q-fields, responding to light so that light means more current flowing through it. If you have many many very tiny such modulators and fit some lenses so that you spread a focussed image of over them, you can begin to make of this a camera. Now since this LSM is very rich in how it spreads itself over the ohms, one could really wire it pretty directly to a LED without going through the transistor. But it's good practise to do it with a transistor and it's also good to know that if the variation in ohm wasn't that great, we could have fine-tuned the whole thing by varying the other modulator connected to the middle pin. It's also good to know that a transistor can act so as to release a much stronger flow of electricity -- not merely speaking of volt which very roughly is the 'speed' of the electricity, but the 'quantity' of electricity, measured in ampere. By having several transistors in series, and some made specially to handle more power (watts, a measurement which is calculated by multiplying the qty of ampere with the qty of volt), we can even use a trickle-sized electrical current through an item to govern a huge motor. The LSM surely doesn't handle all that much ampere. So it's good that we start out working on it without presuming that it is going to drive the machinery it controls directly. The notion of "relay" comes to mind: something feather-light is used to initialise something far more powerful. This idea of the relay is sometimes used in fiction, also by analogy -- as something that can apply to mind. In the Uncanny X-Men series before #153, one of the X-Men girls got 'too powerful' for her own good and killed herself rather than causing tremendous harm; but there was a phase in which she was normalised due to the professor installing what they described as a 'relay' in her mind. This relay was, then, a low-power control of something high-power -- and we see that the use of transistor in this sense constitute a kind of 'mental bit' in the composition of a holistic computer like G15. EDUCATIONAL COMMENT ABOUT OTHER THINGS We're making bits and pieces of a full G15 computer because we want to understand, at heart, in a first-hand sense, something of the essence of computers. We want to have a feeling for how the organic, sensitive nature of all these things work together so as to provide the reliable, robust, interesting, exciting machinery of well-working, society- serving computers. A computer has a bunch of memory positions, or RAM, storing numbers; it has a computer clock -- an oscillator, doing essentially a counting -- from one step to the next, organising things; it has a connection to input and output machinery outside it, including keyboard, mouse, display, and other things; and it has logical gates, socalled; which includes something much like this one -- a "Boolean NOT", which gives a signal when it doesn't get a signal, and vice versa; a "Boolean AND", which gives a signal when two signals are given it; and a "Boolean OR", which gives a signal when its given one, or the other, or both of two input signals. By handling numbers as collections of bits, 0 and 1, or no signal and the presence of a signal, it turns out that with these three logical gates one can get going with arithmetic and all the rest of it. The big numbers up to a billion and slightly further require 32 such bits -- that could mean something like 32 wires. Each wire requires its own set of logical gates. It adds up to many many thousands of logical gates to get the after all relatively simple individual possible actions of a CPU to be performed. Add many many thousands of such actions of the CPU and you get such as the functionality of a computer in, say, a second. A real education must not only allow you to float on top of a computer and its incredible permutations of numbers but point out that the greater reality is far more subtle than any machine; and indeed the computer -- being a machine -- is composed of items which each can be seen to be not merely a machine. Best of lucks! ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ BACKGROUND INFO, LEGAL ASPECTS, CAREFULNESS ETC (things which are supposed to be understood and not repeated with each new elsketch project page) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________